Geographical data-bases:from open access to civic involvement
The easy access to cartographic data provided by the GeoWeb has for some years been enhancing the availability of geographic knowledge to non-expert users. A new amateur cartography is developing widely, but geography is not merely cartography, it is also an invitation into the civic debate. In this debate the scientific research should run alongside the geographic knowledge provided by the people concerned by that research. This opens the way to a new approach of spatial study.
keywords: CIVIC DEBATE, DATABASE, GEOWEB
The value of geographical data
The “semantics” of databases are related to the nomenclature of public statistics and the institutional patterns underpinning their construction. These are all too slow in following the evolutions of techniques and needs.
keywords: DATABASE, GEOSPATIAL DATA, NOMENCLATURE, STATISTIC
Potentiality of the geoweb. Geographical semantic Internet (2 fig.)
Under the heading ‘‘geoweb’’, several concepts and software products are developing integrating more semantics into Internet-based geographic applications. Previously geographic searches aimed to find data concerning a particular point within a geographic database, whereas today the paradigm is to look for information concerning this point across the Internet. Thus geographic retrieval from Internet pages is based on toponymical sources. In addition, geobrowsers enable access to information from positioning on the earth’s surface, mash-ups enable any user to create simple geographic programs, and new 3D city models allow novel applications. The aim of this paper is to analyze these new trends and to show how they are likely to bring about a reappraisal of certain practices.
keywords: GAZETTEER, GEOBROWSER, GEOWEB, MASH-UP
Souleymane THIAM. The development of territorial observatories– complexity and pragmatism (6 fig.)
Evolutions in our globalized societies and their impact on territories and environment are making it essential for decision makers and stakeholders to understand the state and dynamics of the territories in their areas of competence. In this context, and in view of the multiplicity and complexity of territorial systems, the development of observational tools appears essential. Observation, at the interface between reality and knowledge and therefore necessary for all planning and prospective approaches, appears as the strategic informational link in decisional circuits and hence in the necessary regulation of territorial systems.
keywords: GOUVERNANCE, OBSERVATION, TERRITORIAL INTELLIGENCE, TERRITORY
Geographical information, spatial analysis and geo-governance
This article broaches the issue of geographical information and spatial analysis in the process of geo-governance. It focuses on the need to circulate knowledge among actors in a given territory so as to enable the delivery of jointly constructed decisions. It also provides a critical appraisal of a few experiments in this area.
keywords: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION, GEO-GOVERNANCE, REGIONAL PLANNING, SPATIAL ANALYSIS, TERRITORIAL ISSUE
Databases and public debate in French regions (1 encadré)
In France local authorities are developing sophisticated territorial information tools. Despite all their communication efforts, they are not yet been able to foster the emergence of a genuine, free, pluralistic public debat about regional planning issues. This is why the participation of geographers in democratic discussion is more necessary than ever.
keywords: CITIZENSHIP, LOCAL DEMOCRACY, PUBLIC DEBATE, PLURALISM, TERRITORIAL GOVERNANCE
Crisis and revival of regional geographical databases
The digitising of geographical information is causing an expansion crisis, which in turn is a challenge fo cartographers and geographers. If these professionals are to avoid disappearing in their habitual patterns of practice, they need to reshape their professions, for instance by designing new services to citizens.
keywords: CRISIS, DATABASE, DIGITALISATION
Gis and the cartography in the era of the Geoweb. Towards a new generation of participative gis (1 encadré, 2 fig., 3 photos, 1 tabl.)
The Convergence of geographical information systems and the Web has now resulted in the emergence of GeoWeb, enabling the public to read and draw maps. In continuation of the research on participatory geographic information system, this democratization of Webmapping suggests many opportunities for participatory processes (information dissemination, participatory planning, formalization of citizen proposals,…). This is the objective of this research, which attempts to analyze the potential of GeoWeb to develop participatory planning in terms of techniques, uses and content.
keywords: GEOWEB, LAND USE PLANNING, PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY, VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION, WEB 2.0
The Geoweb, a new challenge for the geographical databases
Geospatial databases have changed radically over time with the development of Geographic Information Systems, Internet and cartographic portals. The Geoweb, which is characterized by an increasingly systematic geographical indexing of Web information, is a new step in this field. It has generated enormous changes in the professional and technical ecosystem and generated intense use of geospatial data by a wide range of users. The emergence of amateur practice of geospatial data, a phenomenon also known as Neogeography, and the development of geolocation techniques has led to the production of huge volumes of new data. Management, analysis and interpretation of this data will pose new problems of methodology and ethics.
keywords: CARTOGRAPHY, DATABASE, GEOMATICS, GEOSPATIAL DATA, GEOWEB, GIS, INTERNET, NEOGEOGRAPHY
Climate change in the Champagne vineyard: 2003, a taste of what is foreseen by digital models for the 21st century? (7 fig., 2 photos, 2 tabl.)
In 2003, the Champagne vineyard, affected by a late spring frost and a summer heat-wave which were also observed across Europe, suffered significant damage. The temperature conditions of 2003 could be frequent in future and wine growers wish anticipate this. Daily minima and maxima results from the ARPEGE-Climate model make it possible to estimate frequencies of cold springs and warm summers for the period 2001 to 2100, with three scenarios currently used in climate change impact studies. In the context of climate change frost damage could be more significant in March in case of early budding and exceptional summer heat-waves could increase scorching of the fruit.
keywords: CHAMPAGNE, CLIMATE CHANGE, CLIMATE MODEL, TEMPERATURE, VINEYARD
The daily mobilities of the women in the city of Teheran: between visibility and invisibility (5 fig.)
In spite of the constraints imposed by the Islamic regime, Iranian women are very present in the urban space. The objective of this paper is to challenge the ideological discourse and the stereotypes about the place of women in the city. It is based on the results of the survey “daily mobility of women in the city of Tehran” which aims to build a detailed picture of the spatial practices of women in relation to their perceptions of the urban space. The survey data analysis demonstrates the complexity and variety of the mobility profiles of Iranian women who, between visibility and invisibility, negotiate their right to the city in their everyday life.
keywords: MOBILITY, PERCEPTION, SPATIAL PRACTICE, SURVEY, WOMEN
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
Brunet R. (2010). Le Trésor des régions française. (Denise Pumain, université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Institut universitaire de France)
L’espace géographique 1/11L’espace géographique 3/11
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Last modified: May 31, 2011