Avatars of the township in the post-apartheid city. Lessons from Namibia concerning the word and the matter. (2 fig.)
In Southern African cities, townships as segregated spaces designed for the control of non-white populations represent an emblematic figure of the apartheid policy. Beside this definition, the word also refers to another reality : it represents a cadastral and urban unit widely used in town planning. Beyond the presentation of that hidden face of the township, this article seeks to bring to the fore how such a word has acquired new significations during the course of history. As well as the implications on urban planning and management, it is a matter of revealing the stakes and the strategies underlying these shifts in meaning and the semantic game that is ensuing.
keywords: APARTHEID, SOUTHERN AFRICA, TOWNSHIP, TOWN PLANNING, WINDHOEK
Space and regulation: political and socio-spatial change in Windhoek (Namibia). (4 fig.)
Since 1990 Namibia has been subjected to significant social, political and urban change due to the dowfall of the apartheid regime and access to independence. The transformation was especially apparent in Windhoek, the capital and the country s largest and most prominent urban centre. This article examines the process of transformation of residential areas in the outskirts of Windhoek by linking spatial change at local level with political and economic change at regional and national level. Inspired by the school of regulation, this approach of sociospatial change endeavours to understand the role played by space in the regulation of social relations and the reproduction of a political and economic system.
keywords: HOUSING, POST-APARTHEID, SOCIOSPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION, URBAN RESTRUCTURING, URBAN SPACE
Elements for geography of philosophical divides in Brussels. (11 fig., 1 tabl.)
This paper is a development of an older research (1976) about the geography of divides between catholic bourgeoisie and noncatholic bourgeoisie. It analyses if this still applies currently and moreover for the whole society. To this end we analysed two professions, secondary school students, electoral results and youth movements, depending on their catholic nature or not. Among upper classes, the geography came down from the growth of the first suburbs during the 19th century (Catholics in the East, non-Catholics in the South) are still relevant today despite social evolutions and the time which has elapsed. This is due to socio-geographic inertia and recent locations of catholic or secular institutions close to their natural sociological area. Working-classes, who are to some extent Muslims, are living in areas possibly secular but at least with a quite slight often catholic presence.
keywords: BELGIUM, BRUSSELS, CATHOLICISM, CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY, PHILOSOPHICAL DIVIDES, SECULARISM, SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY
Inter-regional migration patterns of secondary-school leavers, university students and new graduates. (2 encadrés, 5 fig., 3 tabl.)
Since French society has entered the knowledge economy, the migration of young people, especially higher education graduates, is of great interest. Although it could improve our understanding of the territorial dynamics related to the university system and the labour market, there has never been a survey of migration of university students and graduates seeking their first job. Using results on the migration of young people between regions, this paper highlights the predominant role of the Ile-de-France region (greater Paris), as well as similarities and differences in migration behaviour between secondaryschool leavers, university students and graduates seeking their first job.
keywords: HIGHER EDUCATION, LABOUR MARKET, MIGRATIONS, REGIONAL INEQUALITIES, SPATIAL INTERACTION MODELS
Spatial integration of Montreal public housing into social environment. (4 fig., 13 photos, 6 tabl.)
In Montreal, public housing is dispersed throughout the city. Unlike the situation in France, researchers therefore do not look at public housing neighbourhoods, but rather at neighbourhoods where public housing is located. But despite this dispersal in space, is Montreal public housing only found in socially deprived areas of the city ? To answer this question and to identify how public housing is integrated into the Montreal urban area, the methodology developed for this study is based on the examination of two sets of objective data, namely data from the Canadian census used to describe “socioresidential” spaces, and data from the Office municipal d’habitation de Montréal used to describe public housing buildings in terms of the features of the buildings and the socio-demographic characteristics of the tenants. The study revealed the variety of ways in which public housing is integrated into the Montreal urban area and showed that in Montreal public housing is not only found in socially deprived areas.
keywords: FACTORIAL ECOLOGY, MONTREAL, SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT, SOCIAL HOUSING, SOCIAL AND SPATIAL INTEGRATION
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
AUTHIER J.Y. (dir.), BENSOUSSAN B., GRAFMEYER Y., LÉVY J.P., LÉVY-VROELAND C. (2001). Du domicile à la ville. Vivre en quartier ancien. Paris: Anthropos, coll. «Villes», 215 p. (Maria Gravari-Barbas, université d’AngersESTHUA)
BAUDELLE G., REGNAULD H. (2004). Échelles et temporalités en géographie. Paris: SEDES, coll. «DIEM», 175 p. (Yves Poinsot, université de Pau)
BILLARD G., CHEVALIER J., MADORE F. (2005). Ville fermée, ville surveillée La sécurisation des espaces résidentiels en France et en Amérique du Nord. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 235 p. (Yves Guermond, université de Rouen)
GHORRA-GOBIN C. (2003). Villes et société urbaine aux États-Unis. Paris: Colin, 192 p. (Antoine Bailly, université de Genève)
GRANÖ O. (ed) (2003). Origin of Landscape Science. J.G. Granö and a New Pure Geography for a New State. Turku: Turku University Foundation, 144 p. (Hugh Clout, University College London)
GROSSETTI M., LOSEGO P. (2003). La Territorialisation de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche: France, Espagne et Portugal. Paris: L’Harmattan, coll. «Géographies en liberté», 339 p. (Denis Eckert, CNRS Toulouse)
LABOULAIS-LESAGE I., (dir.) (2004). Combler les blancs de la carte. Modalités et enjeux de la construction des savoirs géographiques (XVIIe-XXe siècle). Strasbourg: Presses universitaires de Strasbourg, coll. «Sciences de l’histoire», 314 p. (Jean-Baptiste Arrault, équipe E.H.GO Épistémologie et Histoire de la Géographie)
PEZEU-MASSABUAU Jacques (2003). Habiter: rêve, image, projet. Paris: L’Harmattan, 190 p. (Jean-Paul Ferrier, université d’Aix)
PIHET C. (2003). Vieillir aux États-Unis. Une géographie sociale et régionale des personnes âgées. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 253 p. (Antoine Bailly, université de Genève)
PLET F. (2002). Saint John de Crèvecœur, Voyage dans la Haute Pennsylvanie et dans l’État de New-York depuis l’année 1785 jusqu’en 1798. Saint-Denis/Montréal: Presses universitaires de Vincennes/XYZ, 390 p. (Bernard Debarbieux, université de Genève)
PRYKE M., ROSE G., WHATEMORE S. (2003). Using Social Theory. Thinking through Research. Londres: Sage, IX + 196 p. (Olivier Milhaud, university of Bristol)
L’espace géographique 4/05L’espace géographique 2/06
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Last modified: March 31, 2006