Nadine CATTAN, Thérèse SAINT-JULIEN. Models of geographical integration and the Western European urban network (2 fig.)
This paper aims to demonstrate that the networks between the cities of western Europe are complex structures shaped by the combined action of four main models: the core-periphery model, the national urban systems model, the "capital network model and the specialised urban network model. It goes on to show how the movement towards increased integration of the western European urban network is conditioned by three different spatial logics. The first is a relational logic, comprising the two highly integrative forces of networking based on geographical proximity and networking made possible by new technology. The second is a resources-based logic, which continues to differentiate places. The third is a logic of national administrative divisions, which tends to work against integration.
Paul VILLENEUVE, Pierre FRÉCHETTE. The spatial allocation of economic impacts using the Lowry model (2 tabl., 2 fig.)
We first establish the context in which we use the Lowry model to spatialize the economic impact of external shocks exerted on a local economy. The Lowry model is considered as an accounting model rather than as a causal model. It is used in conjunction with a computable general equilibrium model and a social accounting matrix. Three applications of the approach to the Québec Metropolitan Area are presented. Laval University, the Winter Olympic Games of 2002 Project, and the Metropolitan Québec Technological Park are considered in turn and the economic impact of each on the Metropolitan Area is spatialized. In each case, the emphasis is put on the restrictive hypotheses, the data used and the procedure followed. A comparison of results shows marked variations in the spatial distributions from one case to the other. In spite (or because?) of their pronounced degree of economic integration, urban regions remain highly differentiated internally and the geographic distribution of economic effects can vary substantially according to the type and location of the external shock under consideration. The approach presented underscores the importance of spatial disaggregation in socioeconomic impact studies, and the need for methodologies capable of capturing the variations in the processes at work.
Thierry BROSSARD, Gérard DESSERVY, Daniel JOLY. The GPS used as a large-scale geographical data source (4 fig.)
Geographic Information System (GIS) resources can be used for large-scale spatial analysis. It is especially interesting to test this capacity in the arctic area where the mosaic phenomenon highly influences the natural environment. Precise digital elevation models are thus essential. However, this information is rarely available in high resolution. This paper shows that the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers an appropriate solution. Experiments demonstrate different aspects of the GPS technique: apparatus, measurement planning, data processing.
Yves RICHARD, Pierre CAMBERLIN, Gérard BELTRANDO. Research of space-time structures in climatology. The example of rainfall variability in Eastern Africa. (2 tabl., 4 fig.)
Using monthly data from 79 stations between Eritrea and Mozambique, the space-time distribution of rainfall is studied for the 1953-1985 period. This part of Africa exhibits a large variety in the seasonal distribution of rainfall, ranging from double-peak equatorial regimes to single-peak tropical regimes. Several original patterns, particularly along the east coasts of Kenya and Madagascar, and over the Ethiopian Highlands, are also noticed. Thus, on the basis of interannual variability, this area clearly stands out as a distinct region, with its own unity. Maximum spatial coherence is experienced from October to December. Correlations between the rainfall signals associated to this region, and various climatic fields and indices, reveal that this spatial coherence of Eastern Africa is chiefly determined by large-scale climatic features of the equatorial Indian and Pacific oceans.
France GUÉRIN-PACE, Philippe COLLOMB. Associations evoked by the word «environment»: an analysis based using textual statistics (6 fig.)
The description of representations attributed to the word environment is one of the main objectives of the survey Populations-Espaces de vie-Environnements (populations-life spaces-environments) carried out in 1992 (INED) on a population sample of 5,000 people, representative of the French population. The first stage of this survey consisted in examining the population's representations of the concept of "environment". For this, an analysis was conducted of their spontaneous answers to the question "If I say 'environment', what does this word conjure up for you?". In a second stage, textual statistics methods were applied to these data to record the semantic diversity of this word and to clarify the lexical "worlds" associated with it. Finally, the main structuring features of this corpus were correlated to population characteristics.
Michel POULAIN, Michel FOULON. Linguistic borders, migrations and the spatial distribution of surnames in Belgium (4 fig.)
In Belgium, the existence of different linguistic areas, whether relating to official languages (French and Dutch) or regional languages (for example, the Picardy and Walloon dialects), implies the existence of more or less distinct linguistic borders. These linguistic borders act as a barrier, considerably reducing migratory exchanges within the country. Knowing this, we consider it a useful exercise to analyse the current spatial distribution of certain surnames which originated from particular linguistic areas. On the basis of these distribution patterns, we can redraw the different linguistic areas and evaluate the major migrations of people out of their original linguistic areas.
Jean-Christophe FRANÇOIS. Territorial discontinuities and spatial systems in the space constitued by junior secondary schools in the greater Paris area (5 fig.)
Using the example of the space constituted by junior secondary schools (collèges) in the greater Paris area, this paper proposes an analysis which involves first measuring the spatial discontinuities and then validating this information through an examination of the spatial practices of the users. A set of indicators dividing the population sample of junior secondary pupils according to their nationality and to how far ahead or behind they are in the school system for their age was used to reveal the most significant local structural discontinuities. The method applied was a principal component analysis of contact segments. By then comparing this data with an analysis of applications from pupils seeking to transfer to another school outside their catchment area, we reached the general conclusion with some exceptions that two systems, functioning according to different logics, coexist in the secondary school space.
Cinquième table et index quinquennaux de L’Espace géographique 1993-1997
L’espace géographique 4/97 L’espace géographique 2/98
L’Espace géographique: contents
Last modified: March 20, 1998