Recent changes in the social divisions in Île-de-France: an observation of structural discontinuity
by discriminant analysis (1 tabl., 5 fig.)
In order to understand how the social divisions of residential space in Île-de-France evolved between 1990 and 1999, the problem of measuring discontinuities was tackled. To measure major social change in space, this paper proposes an approach combining smoothing and discriminant analysis. The data used (socio-professional categories from INSEEs censuses of 1990 and 1999 at the level of each IRIS district) show that the two socially opposed spaces are extremely compact and are becoming even more so as small existing centres merge. Mapping also shows a clear trend towards a reinforcement and linearisation of the discontinuities surrounding the more disadvantaged spaces. Conversely, the discontinuities observed around the edges of the most advantaged spaces followed various patterns between 1990 and 1999.
keywords: DISCONTINUITY, DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS, ÎLE-DE-FRANCE, METHODOLOGY, SEGREGATION
Allen J. SCOTT, Frédéric LERICHE. Geographic mainsprings of the cultural economy: from the local to the global (5 fig.)
This paper starts by identifying the modern cultural economy. It highlights the recent rapid growth of cultural industries in the major capitalist countries. The authors discuss the locational proclivities of these industries, and derive a functional classification of the types of spatial conurbations they generate. A brief account is offered of the underlying dynamics of these conurbations and of their creative capacities. They go on to argue that the developmental logic of cultural industries appears to be heading in the direction of an increasingly polycentric global cultural landscape, but at the expense of more traditional (non-commercial) cultural forms. The paper ends with a comment on policy issues with regard to local economic development and the promotion of culture more generally.
keywords: CULTURAL ECONOMY, CULTURAL POLICY, GLOBALIZATION, INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT, URBAN GROWTH, URBAN MARKETING
Denis GAUTIER, Guy-Florent ANKOGUI-MPOKO, Frédéric RÉOUNODJI, Aboubakar NJOYA, Christian SEIGNOBOS. Farmers and herdsmen: from co-existence to territorial integration (5 fig.)
In savannah regions of central Africa, farming and herding communities cohabit in the same small areas. The sedentarisation of both communities, which are used to extensive land management practices has led them to integrate the two activities. This integration, which is encouraged and supported by the Administration and Development, does not necessarily mean an integration of both territories and communities. An analysis of land management in local territories through benchmark sites in Chad, CAR and Cameroon, enables us to discuss the conditions and processes of territorial integration between farming and livestock breeding when the two activities are still performed by two distinct communities. The strongest integration is observed when a herding camp has been settled near a farming village, on the basis of good and longstanding relations, and when local rules of land management are established and accepted by each community. The worst integration is observed when institutional agents have tried to organise activities spatially according to external rules. The territorial dimension appears to be determinant in the farming-livestock breeding integration process in the central African savannah.
keywords: AFRICA, AGRICULTURE, COEXISTENCE, LIVESTOCK BREEDING, TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION, SAVANNAH
Yves POINSOT. The territorial impact of standardising farming activities: the example of the Vosges region of France. (2 tabl., 1 fig.)
The Vosges slopes, once heavily populated, are affected by severe agricultural depopulation. This trend is occurring against a backdrop of increasing regulation of dairy farming. A detailed examination of the abandonment/resumption of farms and land over the period 1950-1980 shows that their geography was not ordered by topographic features, but mainly by the pace of succession in rural districts. By contrast, since 1980, changes to the agricultural fabric have been determined by strategies stemming from agricultural and environmental regulations that place new constraints on farming. This has revived the agricultural attraction of some districts affected by depopulation in the previous decades for farmers from the valleys, spurred on by subsidies. The agricultural evolution of the Vosges has become aberrant for residents and local officials and calls into question the territorial design of agro-environmental public policies.
keywords: AGRICULTURAL DEPOPULATION, ENVIRONMENT, SPATIALISED STANDARDS, SUCCESSION, VOSGES
Lydie GOELDNER-GIANELLA, Christophe IMBERT. Public perceptions of marshes and depolderisation: the case of marsh in Brittany (4 fig.)
In western Europe, land reclamation for agricultural purposes ended a decade or two ago. Moreover, some polders have recently been given up to the sea for environmental reasons. But there is a lack of recent knowledge of the techniques and issues relating to depolderisation, particularly public perceptions and opposition to it. This paper reviews findings from a questionnaire survey conducted on this topic among 220 persons in a coastal marsh of Brittany. The data suggest that people frequently have uncertain and contradictory opinions of depolderisation, which could be attributed to their lack of knowledge about the marsh environment and issues relating to depolderisation. This lack of knowledge is apparently linked to the perception of a marsh more as a landscape than as an ecosystem.
keywords: DEPOLDERISATION, COASTAL MARSH, LANDSCAPE, PUBLIC PERCEPTION, USES
Francis ROUSSEAUX. A choregraphic exploration of the a-touristy space of the Bay of Tunis
We like some places more than others. Who has never had the experience of being inspired by one place and disappointed by another, elated by some shores and demoralised by others? This experience is so familiar to us that we do not even try to understand why it is so strong: we are usually content to make a mental note of it when it happens and make the most of it, by frequenting our favourite places and avoiding the others. For once, this paper looks at things differently, by expressing a question rarely asked: why is it so? One of the places I especially like to go is the Bay of Tunis. For a long time I satisfied myself with this knowledge. But now I would like to find out WHY I like the Bay of Tunis so much.
keywords: LANDSCAPE, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, SENSITIVE GEOGRAPHY, SINGULARITY, SWIMMING, TUNISIA
Without the Tarim. (1 fig., 5 photos)
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
BIDOU-ZAHARIANSEN Catherine dir., HIERNAUX-NICOLAS Daniel, RIVIÈRE DARC Hélène (2003). Retours en ville, des processus de «gentrification» urbaine aux politiques de «revitalisation» des centres. Paris: Descartes et Cie, 268 p. (par Claude BATAILLON, CNRS, Toulouse)
BRADY Joseph and SIMMS Anngret, eds (2001). Dublin through Space and Time. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 394 p. (par Hugh CLOUT, University College, London)
BRIDEL Laurent (2002). Manuel daménagement du territoire. Genève: Georg, 384 p. (par Jean-Paul FERRIER, UMR ESPACE 6012, Aix-Marseille)
CARON Patrick, SABOURIN Éric, coord. (2001). Paysans du sertão, mutation des agricultures familiales dans le Nordeste du Brésil. Montpellier: Cirad/Embrapa, 244 p. (par Hervé THÉRY, CNRS CREDAL, São Paulo)
COHEN Marianne, DUQUÉ Ghislaine (2001). Les Deux Visages du sertão, stratégies paysannes face aux sécheresses (Nordeste, Brésil). Paris: IRD Éditions, 388 p. (par Hervé THÉRY, CNRS CREDAL, São Paulo)
DEHOUVE Danièle (2001). Ensayo de geopolítica indígena los municipios tlapanecos. México DF: CIESAS-CEMCA/Miguel Angel Porrua, 312 p. (par Claude BATAILLON, CNRS, Toulouse)
DUROUSSET Éric (2001). À qui profitent les actions de développement? La parole confisquée des petits paysans (Nordeste, Brésil). Paris: LHarmattan, 117 p. (par Hervé THÉRY, CNRS CREDAL, São Paulo)
LANDY Frédéric (2002). LUnion Indienne. Nantes: Éditions du Temps, coll. «Une Géographie», 287 p. (par Sébastien OLIVEAU, Équipe PARIS, UMR Géographie-Cités)
MCMANUS Ruth (2002). Dublin 1910-1940: shaping the city and the suburbs. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 504 p. (par Hugh Clout, University College, London)
PRUNTY Jacinta (1999). Dublin Slums 1800-1925: a study in urban geography. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 366 p. (par Hugh CLOUT, University College, London)
WHELAN Yvonne (2003). Reinventing Modern Dublin: streetscape, iconography and the politics of identity. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 318 p. (par Hugh Clout, University College, London)
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Last modified: September 29, 2005