Christian Vandermotten, Pierre Marissal. A new economic typology of the European regions (4 tabl., 3 fig.)
A new economic typology of the European regions. This paper proposes a new regional economic typology of Europe, which confirms a centre-periphery pattern. Recent geographical and structural developments show a continuous displacement of the centre of gravity of the European economy towards the South. But the fast growth of the periphery and the formation of new industrial regions that prevailed during the Fordist era are now being replaced by more complex spatial and structural changes, characterised by tertiarisation, metropolisation and recentralisation processes. However, the central regions now enclose subcentral crisis areas. These phenomena can be explained by Kondratiev cycles.
keyword: CENTRE-PERIPHERY, EUROPE, REGIONAL ECONOMY, SPATIAL PATTERNS
Boris Grésillon. The hidden side of urban life or elements in a new centrality. Places of homosexual culture in Berlin (3 fig.)
The hidden side of urban life or elements in a new centrality. Places of homosexual culture in Berlin. Far removed from the debates on the Berlin Republic or on the new architectural and urban face of the German capital, homosexual culture is flourishing in Berlin. With a longstanding tradition, homosexual culture is now rediscovering some of its key original sites in the central districts of the western side of the city and moving into the eastern part. The main feature of this constantly evolving geography is centrality. Three districts of the InnenstadtSchöneberg, Kreuzberg and Prenzlauer Bergare key places. Homosexual culture thus seems to have acquired a right of centrality in Berlin and, as a result, influences the cityscape as a whole. This leads to a new interpretation of urban culture and the cultural metropolis.
keyword: BERLIN, CENTRALITY, CULTURE, DIFFERENCE, HOMOSEXUALS, METROPOLIS, PLACES, RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT
The West Indian diaspora in the United Kingdom and religion: appropriation of a symbolic space and reshaping of urban identities (1 fig., 1 phot.)
The West Indian diaspora in the United Kingdom and religion: appropriation of a symbolic space and reshaping of urban identities. This paper suggests that the religious practices of members of the West Indian diaspora in the United Kingdom form a space where a new vision of social life is developing in response to the pressures experienced within British society. Borrowing from Henri Lefebvres concept of the production of space, this paper interprets religious experience as the appropriation of a symbolic space in which identity is freed from the social constructions that constrain it. In contrast to the dual construction of identity imposed by the strongly segregated concrete spaces of British cities, the religious space offers an intercultural sociality that is not focused on difference. The idea of a community of Christians linked by the common experience of their encounter with Christ seems to prevail over all other criteria of social affiliation. Some features of the churches and behaviour of the faithful also support this argument and the idea of an open construction of identity.
keyword: DIASPORA, IDENTITY, RELIGION, TERRITORY, UNITED KINGDOM, WEST INDIES
Poverty and everyday urban space in Niamey (4 tabl., 5 fig.)
Poverty and everyday urban space in Niamey. In fast-growing sub-Saharian African cities, unplanned settlements and suburban villages usually accommodate the most disadvantaged urban dwellers, who are also the least mobile. Data from a household survey carried out in Niamey on a sample of 2,732 people make it possible to analyse their housing and social characteristics and the way they use urban space. Personal income is a more decisive factor in access to the city than home location, but for the urban poor, lack-of-income effects are compounded by home location in peripheral areas, which are usually both under-serviced and difficult to access. This cumulation of handicaps strongly reduces the possibility of travelling to town and therefore, of access to better paid jobs and, more generally, to urban services.
keyword: DAILY MOBILITY, POVERTY, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, URBAN SPACE
Jean-Christophe Paoli. Changes in Mediterranean agro-pastoral territories: sedentarisation of sheep-farming in Sardinia. (3 fig.)
Changes in Mediterranean agro-pastoral territories: sedentarisation of sheep-farming in Sardinia. In the past 30 years, the agro-pastoral system in Sardinia, specialised in dairy-cow breeding, has shifted from inverse transhumance to sedentarisation as a consequence of land acquisition. The trend in Sardinia is unusual in comparison with the general pattern in Mediterranean agro-pastoral societies and is due to the amount of farmers capital at the time land was sold. The farmers who were able to buy former lowland winter pastures increased their productivity. Those who were not able to buy land had to settle in mountainous areas, where breeding conditions are more difficult. Diffentiation and inequality between regions are a consequence of sedentarisation.
keyword: AGRARIAN SYSTEM, CORSICA, ITALY, PASTORAL, SARDINIA, SHEEP-FARMING, TRANSHUMANCE
Mamady Sidibe. The protected forest of Pata: peanut farmers take over from cattle farmers (1 tabl., 6 fig.)
The protected forest of Pata: peanut farmers take over from cattle farmers. Located in the Kolda area of southern Senegal, the protected forest of Pata has been occupied illegally since 1978 by Wolof and Toucouleur migrants from Saloum. The Wolof cultivate peanuts, while the Toucouleur traditionally breed cattle. Today the situation has changed. The expansion of the peanut pioneers (the Wolof), the decline in grazing potential and the disappearance of most of the waterholes have considerably reduced grazing land. Because of these factors and of the higher profits gained from peanuts, in comparison with breeding, Toucouleur people are increasingly adopting the practices of the Wolof. The general trend in the forest is towards a standardisation of spatial behaviour.
keyword: BREEDING, MIGRATION, PEANUTS, PROTECTED FOREST, SENEGAL, SPATIAL PRACTICES
Frédéric Serre. A method to measure and spatialise a climatic constraint: snow on the road network in the Massif Central mountain range in central France (5 fig.)
A method to measure and spatialise a climatic constraint: snow on the road network in the Massif Central mountain range in central France. This paper presents a method for measuring objectively and spatialising the constraints stemming from the snowing over of a road network. Situations of slowed and blocked of traffic are expressed using standard meteorological indicators, measured in terms of risk. The values of the risk indicators are calculated for 518 spatial units of 25 km2 making up the study area. The maps constructed from the risk indicators make it possible to isolate the sectors with the worst traffic problems. The overall weight of the constraint is determined by crossing these data with data on the degree of remoteness of the territories.
keyword: CLIMATIC CONSTRAINT, MASSIF CENTRAL, ROAD NETWORK, SNOW
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
AUBERT Claude, CARRÉ François, GIROIR Guillaume, ROBERTERIE Pierre de la, LARIVIÈRE Jean-Pierre, LEMOINE Françoise, PAIRAULT Thierry, SANJUAN Thierry, TROLLIET Pierre (1999). La Chine et les Chinois de la diaspora. Paris: CNED/SEDES, 295 p.
BÉTHEMONT Jacques (1999). Les Grands Fleuves entre nature et société. Paris: Armand Colin, coll. «Géographie U», 256 p.
DEMANGEOT Jean (1999). Tropicalité, géographie physique et intertropicale. Paris: Armand Colin, coll. «Géographie U», 340 p.
FUR Alexandre, GENTELLE Pierre, PAIRAULT Thierry (1999). Économie et régions de la Chine. Paris: Armand Colin. Coll. «Cursus», 175 p.
GENTELLE Pierre (1999). Chine et «Chinois» outre-mer à L’orée du XXIe siècle. Paris: SEDES, 312 p.
LAMARRE Denis, PAGNEY Pierre (1999). Climats et sociétés. Paris: Armand Colin, coll. «Géographie U», 272 p.
LARIVIÈRE Jean-Pierre, MARCHAND Jean-Pierre (1999). Géographie de la Chine. Paris: Armand Colin, 297 p.
LÉZY Emmanuel, NONJON Alain (1999). Cartes en main - La cartographie aux concours. Paris: Ellipses.
ZERAH Marie-Hélène (1999). L’accès à L’eau dans les villes indiennes. Paris: Economica, Coll. «Villes», 192 p.
Tables and indexes for 2000 (32 Ko)
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Last modified: December 21, 2000