Jean-Louis BALLAIS. The pace of morphogenesis: its conception through the history of geomorphology
The pace of morphogenesis has been a central issue in geomorphology since the discipline became a science in its own right. The major paradigms of catastrophism and uniformitarianism appeared before Davis. In Davisian theory, the evolution of landforms begins with a catastrophic event, but a continuous process is the main concept. After Davis, dynamic geomorphology and the concept of systems of denudation (and morphogenesis) became predominant, before being subsequently enhanced by neo-catastrophism.
keywords: CATASTROPHISM, EROSION, NEO-CATASTROPHISM, UNIFORMITARIANISM
Jean-François STASZAK. Self-fulfilling prophecies and geography (3 fig.)
A self-fulfilling prophecy is a definition of a situation which affects behaviours in such a way that this definition becomes exact. This paper focuses on the usefulness and the relevance of this concept in the field of Geography, analysing several examples such as spatial segregation, urban crisis in the USA, globalization, regional planning, agglomeration economies. Furthermore, it argues that space itself may be responsible for the prophecy's fulfillment. This raises important epistemological issues.
keywords: AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES, BEHAVIOUR, CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY, EPISTEMOLOGY, EXPECTATION, REPRESENTATION, SPATIAL SEGREGATION, SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
Laurent GRISON. Essay on geographical figures in art
This paper aims to analyse and understand the use of geographical figures in artistic representations from the 15th century to the present day. A comparative approach is used and this research overlaps with academic disciplines other than geography: history, art history, linguistics, anthropology and philosophy. The hypothesis is put forward of the presence of invariants in the use of geographical figures. This remains to be confirmed or disproved.
keywords: ART, GEOGRAPHICAL FIGURES, REPRESENTATIONS
Denis GAUTIER. Analysing multiple use of space in Cévennes with spatio-temporal graphical models (9 fig.)
To achieve a better understanding of the multiple use of rural space and to be able to discuss it with stakeholders in the management of local territory, this paper proposes a hypothetico-deductive method. It is based on the principles of graphical modelling and incorporates into the same model an elementary structure of the space and an annual calendar for each of the management practices identified in the space. With the graphical superimposition of all these spatio-temporal models, hypotheses can be made on the way in which these practices are organised in space and time. The method is experimented, using the example of management of space in Cévennes.
keywords: CÉVENNES, GRAPHICAL MODELLING, MULTIPLE USE OF SPACE, RURAL PRACTICES, SPACE-TIME
Pascal MARTY. The dark side of space. Is the «antimonde» concept relevant for private forests? (3 tabl.)
The concept of «antimonde» (anti-world) was proposed by Roger Brunet in the early 1990s to refer to places and territories where illegal activities (such as the underground economy or organised crime) or activities that do not meet common standards occur. This paper retraces the origin of the concept and seeks to demonstrate that small private forests in peripheral mountainous areas form an «antimonde». These mosaic forests are the result of a century of voluntary or, more often, spontaneous reafforestation. In these forests, there are spatial practices that are very close to Brunet's definition: 1) as regards land ownership, there is a large number of micro-properties; owners of less than 25 ha are not required to comply with the provisions of French legislation on forest management and timber production; 2) from the technical point of view, many landowners are highly resistant to adopting the models subsidised by public forestry policy; 3) in economic terms, a portion of the felling and sale of timber is undeclared and takes place through interpersonal arrangements.
keywords: «ANTIMONDE», FOREST, PRIVATE PROPERTY, RURAL SPACE
Béatrice MÉNARD. The presence of animals and the spread of germs in community space (2 fig.)
The community space contains numerous health risks, particularly diseases related to the unregulated presence of animals or to the proximity of focuses of animal germs from adjacent wildlife areas. A point-by-point geographical analysis of the spatial bases of the diffusion processes involved in appearance of these zoonotic diseases should facilitate prevention in the area concerned.
keywords: COMMUNITY SPACE, DIFFUSION PROCESS, GEOGRAPHY OF DISEASE, ZOONOSIS
Preventive management of risk zones: railway rights-of-way in Cameroon (5 fig.)
In Cameroon, when a railway passes through a town, it is built on a right-of-way whose width was set at 70 metres by Ordinance no. 74-1 of 6 July 1974 establishing the rules governing land tenure. In the mind of the legislator, this area should remain vacant to allow sufficient space for rail transport through urban areas. Unfortunately, failure to abide by this land tenure legislation has turned the right-of-way into an area where activities as diverse as agriculture, commerce, industry and housing compete for space. The coexistence of divergent land uses in a particularly sensitive area has increased the vulnerability of the urban railway right-of-way, now classified as an urban risk zone. The railway disaster in Nsam, a district in Yaounde (the capital of Cameroon), on 14 February 1998, highlighted the precariousness of the situation. Inspired by that tragic event, this paper encourages further reflection on railway safety in urban areas and moves on to a general study of mechanisms of prevention and georisk management in the planning of African cities. Through a systemic analysis, it synergistically integrates demographic, economic, legal, financial and spatial parameters.
keywords: CAMEROON, LAND USE, RISK, TOWN PLANNING, TRANSPORT
Sandrine DALL’AGLIO, Sylvain PETITET. Municipal territory and territorial solidarity: the case of Villefranche-sur-Saône (Rhône) (5 tabl., 1 fig.)
While the district of Villefranche-sur-Saône now appears to be a fully institutionalised agglomeration, its history and the economic crisis of the early 1970s highlight the difficulty institutionalising territorial solidarity at the level of a town comprising several municipalities. We are also compelled to relativise the classic opposition between intermunicipal projects and intermunicipal management and to examine ways of developing a sense of community on the scale of a town.
keywords: DISTRICT, INTERMUNICIPALITY, RHÔNE-ALPES, TERRITORIAL MANAGEMENT
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
Arnould P., Hotyat M., Simon L. (1997). Les Forêts d'Europe. Paris: Nathan Université, coll. «Fac. Géographie», 413 p.
Bataillon Cl. (1999). Pour la géographie. Paris: Flammarion, Coll. «Géographes», 162 p.
Berque A., Conan M., Donadieu P., Lassus B., Roger A., (1999). La Mouvance, cinquante mots pour le paysage. Paris: Éditions de la Villette, coll. «Passage», 7 dessins de Bernard Lassus, reproduits en noir et blanc sur calque, 96 p.
Bravard J.-P., Petit F. (1997). Les Cours d'eau, dynamique du système fluvial. Paris: Armand Colin, coll. «U Géographie», 222 p.
Cosaert P. (1998). Le Centre du Viêt-nam: du local au global. Un territoire et des hommes entre développement local et système Monde. Paris: L’Harmattan, coll. «Points sur L’Asie», 272 p.
Ferrier J.-P. (1999). Le Contrat géographique, ou L’habitation durable des territoires. Lausanne: Payot, 251 p.
Jollivet M., dir. (1997). Vers un rural postindustriel. Rural et environnement dans huit pays européens. Paris: L’Harmattan, coll. «Environnement», 371 p.
Lecoq D., Chambard A. (1998). Terre à découvrir, terres à parcourir. Exploration et connaissance du monde, XIIe-XIXe siècles. Paris: L’Harmattan, 370 p.
Marchand J.-P., Riquet P. (1996). Europe du Nord, Europe médiane, Avec la collaboration de Jean-Claude Boyer, Henri Chamussy, Maryvonne Le Berre, Claude Moindrot, Émile Mérenne, Bernadette Mérenne-Schoumaker, Jean-Bernard Racine, Claude Raffestin, Lena Sanders, Michel Vigouroux. Paris: Belin-Reclus, 1996. Géographie Universelle sous la direction de Roger Brunet.
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Last modified: July 4, 2000