EPEES. Spatial event
The word event is rarely used in geography and is never associated with the adjective spatial. An event refers more often to time and is above all defined by its brevity, which makes it possible to date the occurrence. Linking the words event and spatial is unusual. However, to fully explore the dynamics of territories, we need to envisage linking time and space to take into account the processes and events that change spatial organisation. Therefore, it seemed of interest to examine the link between event and spatial by associating the two words in an expression, spatial event, and by discussing its definition and application.
keywords: CATASTROPHISM, EROSION, NEO-CATASTROPHISM, UNIFORMITARIANISM
Collectif. The concept of sptial event..
Marie-Vic OZOUF-MARIGNIER, Nicolas VERDIER. Events: historical objects for borrowing
Bernard ELISSALDE. Geography, time and spatial change (1 fig.)
In contrast to the linear, cumulative concept of time in conventional geography, spatial analysis and a spatial systems approach offer a way of taking into account the multiple and discontinuous temporalities that punctuate geographical space. These are the variable durations of spatial structures, spatial events and phases of territorial transition, and phenomena of resilience that contribute to spatial change.
keywords: EPISTEMOLOGY, SPATIAL CHANGE, SPATIAL STRUCTURE, TEMPORALITIES
Hervé VIEILLARD-BARON. Disadvantaged areas and town policy in France: a review. (2 fig.)
Taking examples from the Île-de-France, the South of France and Saint-Denis, the capital of Reunion Island, the author shows that town policy is in fact a hotchpotch of laws and measures that extend beyond the town in its strict sense or that reduce it to its most disadvantaged areas. In this sense, town policy is a default policy used to fill in the gaps left by sectoral policies; it is at once necessary and doomed to fail because it is unable to respond within a given time to all the issues it covers. By continuing town policy, the central government has locked itself into a major contradiction: withdrawing to leave freedom to local authorities and grassroots initiatives within the framework of decentralisation, while at the same time intervening massively to maintain its symbolic role as arbiter and guarantor of republican equality.
keywords: DISADVANTAGED AREA, ÎLE-DE-FRANCE, LANGUEDOC-ROUSSILLON, PUBLIC SERVICES, REUNION ISLAND, SEGREGATION, TOWN POLICY
Emmanuel ELIOT. The spread of HIV in India: test of a gravity model (1 tabl., 5 fig.)
This paper attempts to analyse the mechanisms of the spatial diffusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to ascertain its main carriers in India, a major centre of the pandemic in Asia. By comparing a probabilistic model of diffusion with serological data from one of the central states of India, it is possible to obtain an initial picture of the hierarchical component of the epidemic. The major epicentres from which HIV spreads are shown to be a metropolis, an industrial port town and an important Hindu pilgrimage site. An analysis of forms of mobility then makes it possible to identify the most epidemiogenous. The movement of prostitutes, male tourists and migrant workers in the country are a key factor in the diffusion of the epidemic.
keywords: GRAVITY MODEL, HIV, MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY, SPATIAL DIFFUSION
The middle valley of the Euphrates in Syria: settlement patterns and potential (3 fig.)
The middle valley of the Euphrates in Syria is one of the places where the first organised establishments appeared and was one of the centres for the diffusion of people from Neolithic times. Now it is an area of intense agricultural development, which is about to disappear under the waters of the Tishrin dam. We attempt to understand the reasons behind the changes that have occurred in land use, the relationships between the different sites and the role as a conduit for exchange played by the valley. Supported by cartography and models of the population potential in the interstitial space, we put forward the hypothesis of the early existence of a settlement system, more vast and complex than the sites currently known lead to believe.
keywords: ARCHEOLOGY, EUPHRATES, SETTLEMENT PATTERNS, SETTLEMENT POTENTIAL, SETTLEMENT SYSTEM, SYRIA
Quantitative, qualitative and informal in geographical information (2 fig.)
The terms quantitative and qualitative are used in geography as they are in statistics. In semantic information, quantitative and qualitative form a continuum, from measurement to nomenclature, with ordered intermediate stages. The quantitative takes precedence and the qualitative, by nature discontinuous, has come to mean that which is imprecise or uncodifiable. When it is impossible or irrelevant to codify certain information, it would be better to use another term: we propose informal. In spatial information, the qualitative predominates, particularly in topology. It would therefore be preferable to replace quantitative/qualitative with formal/informal.
keywords: FORMAL, GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, INFORMAL, QUALITATIVE, QUANTITATIVE, TOPOLOGY
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
BEAUCHARD J. (2000). La Bataille du territoire. Mutation spatiale et aménagement du territoire. Paris: L’Harmattan, 144 p., coll. «Administration et aménagement du territoire».
BEAUCHARD J. dir. (2000). L’Europe aveugle. La Tour d'Aigues: Éditions de L’Aube.
BILLARD Gérald (1999). Citoyenneté, planification et gouvernement urbain aux États-Unis. Paris: L’Harmattan.
BLOTEVOGEL H.H., FIELDING A.J., dir. (1997). People, Jobs and Mobility in the new Europe. Chichester J. Wiley, 312 p.
Collectif (1999). Moyennes montagnes européennes, nouvelles fonctions, nouvelles gestions de L’espace rural, Actes du colloque de Clermont-Ferrand, mai 1998. Clermont-Ferrand: Université Blasie Pascal, 645 p.
COMMERÇON N., GEORGE P., dirs, (1999). Villes en transition. Paris Anthropos, 222 p.
DEMAZIÈRE C. (2000). Entreprises, développement économique et espace urbain. Paris Anthropos, 190 p., coll. «Villes» dirigée par D. Pumain. Longue bibliographie.
FRÉMONT A. (1999). La Région, espace vécu. Paris: Champs-Flammarion, 288 p. Nouvelle édition augmentée.
GOUËSET V., dir., (1999). Investissements étrangers et milieu local. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 535 p.
LÉVY B., RAFFESTIN Cl. (1999). Ma ville idéale. Genève: Métropolis, 247p.
PHLIPPONNEAU M. (1999). La Géographie appliquée. Du géographe universitaire au géographe professionnel. Paris A. Colin, 300 p.
VANDERMOTTEN Chr., MARISSAL P. (1998). La Production des espaces économiques, t. 1. Bruxelles: Éditions de L’Université, 320 p., 147 fig., 69 tab.
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Last modified: October 6, 2000