L’Espace géographique 3/97

Without summaries

Rémy KNAFOU, Mireille BRUSTON, Florence DEPREST, Philippe DUHAMEL, Jean-Christophe GAY, Isabelle SACAREAU. A geographical approach to tourism. (1 fig.)

Tourism only belatedly interested geographers, who built a «geography of tourism» which takes part in the renewal of geography by approaching a new theme. Today, the authors suggest a reexamination of the notions of tourism and leisure from a geographical angle which points out the different types of space having to deal with tourism. A geography of tourism thus gives way to a geographical approach to tourism which partakes in the consideration of the nature of tourism and in the examination of open research sites in geography through the study of the social phenomenon: tourism.

Jean-Michel DEWAILLY. Recreational areas: from reality to virtuality? (1 fig.)

Facing the continual growth of the recreational phenomenon - concerning tourism, leisure and sport - control of the induced effects becomes more and more necessary for the sake of recreation itself. These effects are increasingly burdensome and are often negative for reception and transit space. The recent development of types of tourism called sustainable tourism, as interesting as it may be, may not be enough to control this phenomenon, and seems, however, to be the only updated sign of a long-existing search for enduring tourism. Facing these sometimes preoccupying evolutions concerning the effective management of recreational resources, the author wonders if the progressive spread, which has already started, of a virtual reality in the recreational field will not bring about questions concerning numerous practices as well as some of the organizational structures of recreational space.

Pedro DOMÍNGUEZ BASCÓN. Human bioclimatology and habitat conception. The courtyard microclimatic function in Andalusian traditional houses. (2 photo., 3 fig.)

In Andalusia, the two-storey house with inner courtyard (patio) is the traditional habitat, the courtyard making for ideal protection from the adverse thermical and hygrometrical conditions of the long summer season, without neecessarily having to resort to a large use of air-conditioning systems. So beneficial an effect is achieved by the courtyard, which defines the interior structure of the whole house.

Claire DELFOSSE. Regional names and products of the terroir: the stakes of geographic names.

Since the end of the 19th century, the issue of the connections between food products (in this case, cheese) and their production area has become of increasing importance. It is closely linked with that of the properties of its geographic name. Increased emphasis being placed on the food-production area connection, there have been a larger number of debates requiring geographic knowledge, especially in order to define a production area. Consequently, the issue of «terroir» has often appeared. The multiplicity of its definitions and roles which are assigned to this notion reflects the complexity of the stakes raised by foods with a specific geographic name.

Frédéric MOATTY, Antoine VALEYRE. The polarization of industrial research & development in France: activity based or organizational logic? (9 tabl., 4 fig.)

This paper deals with the polarization of industrial R&D employment in France. From a global typology of employment areas according to their industrial employment structure, it points out the areas where the R&D function is concentrated. It shows that industrial R&D polarization has two forms: an activity-based polarization of high tech industries and a functional logic of polarization of R&D establishments. Finally, this paper proves that the R&D functional polarization is all the more important in firms which have a very complex organizational structure.

Yves POINSOT. The role of spatial forms in the extension of wasteland in the Razes district (Aude). Outline of a vicinity geography. (2 tabl., 4 fig.)

In the Razes district (Aude), plots are being left to lie wasteland whilst the agricultural census (RGA) shows an increase in the used agricultural area (SAU) of the country. The evolution of production systems explains this paradox. In fact although farmers are looking for grazing land, they tend to leave aside some of the plots unsuited to new demands for mechanized sheep-farming. A change in the methods of agricultural production therefore generates «normal» wasteland. Its extension is closely linked to the forms of the agricultural area, either in a literal sense, the form of farmed plot divisions, or the general form of the cultivated area of villages, or the natural form often determined by the slope. Theoretical model of systemic origin, brings out two types of links between the farm and its plot divisions: interrelations and interferences. The study of which constitutes the subject of vicinity geography.

Jørgen Drud HANSEN, Gustav KRISTENSEN, Zymunt TKOCZ. Expansion method of danish cities. (1 tabl., 3 fig.)

The Expansion Method is a model building strategy for extending pre-existing models to encompass their contexts. In this article the strengths, potential, and weaknesses of the Expansion Method are discussed, using as examples expanded models of the main economic and sociological structures of Danish cities.

Marie-Alexandre LAURENT, Isabelle THOMAS. Spatial interaction model and aggregation of places. The example of crime data. (3 tabl., 4 fig.)

This paper tests the effect of spatial data aggregation on the results of an interaction model applied to crime data. Several statistics are used to test the sensivity of the results to the level of aggregation and to the way data are aggregated. The results suggest the need for care and critical consideration in choosing the size and shape of spatial units.

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Last modified: September 4, 1997