The concept of acceptance and its relevance to social geography: the example of local acceptance of national parks in Germany. (1 tabl., 4 fig.)
The concept of acceptance, as developed by German social psychology, has been extended to the field of geographical research. It is applied to spatial structures that have been imposed on local territories by global policies. In particular it has been used for national parks, to define the level of acceptance by the local communities concerned. In this case, «acceptance» implies a high degree of acceptance, which means that people identify with the values embodied by the new structure. This concept enables us to better understand the tacit divergences over fundamental values that occur in social relations before or after a conflict over land use. Mapping the degree of acceptance also helps us to identify the territorial factors involved in the variety of reactions from one municipality to another. This supports the idea of an «acceptance crater» around national parks. Encouraged by the example of regional parks, the managers of national parks seek to enhance local recognition of their action. The difficulty lies in appealing to the public without altering the parks nature, which finally results in a debate between acceptance and adaptation.
keywords: GERMANY, NATIONAL PARKS, RURAL DISTRICTS, SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE, SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY
Tierra del Fuego confronting the future. From a territorial crisis to a new development myth (12 fig.)
In the collective imagination, the province of Tierra de Fuego has always been considered a mythical territory because of its unexplored resources, isolation from urban centres and extreme climatic conditions. Its evolution and development were always influenced by this mythical image and by the economic activities developed there. The territorial crisis now affecting the island (not only a political crisis, but also a social and environmental one) calls for the creation of a new, sustainable, development myth to overcome this situation. However, despite this promise, the province must deal with a highly complex national context, which limits its real development potential.
keywords: ARGENTINA, DEVELOPMENT, FORECASTING, MYTH, TIERRA DEL FUEGO
Demand-side management of electricity transmission in French rural areas: defining macro-scale projects? (6 tabl., 5 fig.)
The aim of this paper is to define precisely operational zones for the implementation of demand-side management (DSM) programmes for electricity transmission in rural areas. The approach implemented emphasises the geographical aspects of demand without neglecting fundamental aspects pertaining to customer end uses and the low-voltage grid. In France, the grid was extended to rural areas in 1970. However, the current increase in investment needs for the rural grid has prompted the regulatory authorities to promote DSM as a less costly alternative to grid reinforcement. Among the determinants of electricity demand and its increase, the geographical context seems preponderant. It encompasses the natural environment and local population trends resulting from changing life styles. To take this into account, a classification based on Gaussian mixture models and integrating spatial constraints of the neighbouring area can be used to identify areas of high electricity consumption.
keywords: DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT, MIXTURE ESTIMATION, RURAL ELECTRIFICATION, SPATIAL CLUSTERING
Anne-Sophie DEVANNE, «Closed» landscape: beyond the phenomenon, a brief history of a social construct (2 encadrés, 3 photos)
The expression closed landscaperefers both to a physical phenomenon (the spatial extension of forest) and the way it is perceived by users of the spaces concerned (feeling of oppression, etc.). It is also the product of a social construct. This construct emerged with concerns over the environment in the 1970s and reached its height in the 1980s during a conflict where the meanings of the changes affecting rural spaces were renegotiated. It then became a standard for the evaluation and evolution of these spaces, leading to a regional development paradigm of openness. This paradigm is theoretically complementary, not antagonistic, to that of promotion the reintroduction of trees into farming systems.
keywords: AFFORESTATION, LANDSCAPE, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, RURAL SPACE, SOCIAL CONSTRUCT
Urban landscapes in town planning and national environmental policy (3 tabl., 1 encadré)
An analysis of environmental law and town-planning law shows the double, if not triple, affiliation of the urban landscape: sometimes associated with protection of territories from urban development, sometimes related to urban beautification and new urban development practices, it is also linked to issues of urban identity. This public policy study enables us to determine whether landscape is an actual environmental policy or primarily rhetoric. However, landscape could become an important town-planning issue if its invisible components social and environmental aspects were included in its visible dimension.
keywords: ENVIRONNEMENT, ENVIRONMENT LAW, TOWN PLANNING, TOWN PLANNING LAW, URBAN LANDSCAPE
Debarring medial work
Medial work is that performed by the medial body, i.e. the eco-techno-symbolic milieu necessary to the existence of the individual person. It is the chorarequired by the topos of our animal body. However, modern ontology does not acknowledge this link. This debarment is particularly pronounced in methodological individualism. It is expressed by the short term rationality of capitalism. If humankind is to survive on Earth, we must replace modern ontology, which focuses on the «being towards death» of the individual, with an ontology that acknowledges the «being towards life» of humankind.
keywords: BODY, CAPITALISM, CHORA, ECUMENE, INDIVIDUALISM, LANDSCAPE, LIFE, METABOLISM, TOPOS, WORK
In this issue of L’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
AMIN Ash, THRIFT Nigel (2002). Cities: reimagining the urban. Cambridge: Polity Press, VII + 184 p., (par Camille Tiano, Paris VIII, Institut français durbanisme)
ASCHER François (2001). Les Nouveaux Principes de l’urbanisme. La fin des villes n’est pas à l’ordre du jour. La Tour d’Aigues: Éditions de l’Aube, coll. «Monde en cours, série Intervention», 104 p. ( par Philippe Pinchemel)
LUCCHINI Françoise (2002). La Culture au service des Villes. Paris: Anthropos, 262 p., (par Yves Guermond, Université de Rouen)
POLESE Mario, SHEARMUR Richard (dir.), avec la collaboration de Pierre-Marcel DESJARDINS et Marc JOHNSON (2002). La Périphérie face à l’économie du savoir. Montréal: Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 237 p. (Antoine Bailly, Université de Genève)
Lespace géographique 4/04L’espace géographique 2/05
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Last modified: May 19, 2005