Implementation of rural firewood markets in Mali : a social and territorial event (1 tabl., 5 fig.)
In 1994, the Malian government embarked on a reform to decentralise its natural resource management policies. A World Bank funded household energy project has set up hundreds of rural firewood markets around the largest cities in the country. Consisting of a demarcated area of natural woodland (for which a harvesting quota has been set), a local management body and a point of sale, the markets work with sale by coupons, differential taxation and checks at the entry to cities. The authors evaluate the rural market system in a municipality ( commune) on the Bamako-Segu trunk road. They highlight distinctive features that may be signs of a complete change in the balance of power and the relationship to territoriality in the villages under review.
keywords: BUSH, CONFLICT, FUELWOOD, MALI, RURAL FIREWOOD MARKETS, SOCIAL CHANGE, TERRITORIAL DYNAMICS
Territorial issues in the towns of KwaZulu-Natal, between differentiation and competition (6 tabl., 5 fig.)
Our aim is to highlight the diversity of urban reality in KwaZulu-Natal. A typology is made from a PCA based on various criteria social, economic, qualitative, quantitative, etc. This typology is then compared with a forward-looking urban classification based on current economic trends in the towns and their position in the new political situation inherited from the 2000 municipal boundaries. The combination of the two classifications creates various categories of towns, from winners to losers. The paper shows how the familiar provincial T (dynamic spatial axis) is being superseded by a winning L between Pietermaritzburg, Durban and Richards Bay.
keywords: BOUNDARIES, CLASSIFICATION, KWAZULU-NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, TOWN
Jacques CHEVALIER, Cristina CARBALLO. Residential enclosure and the quest for togetherness in North and South America
Today, residential enclosure is a ubiquitous process throughout metropolitan and perimetropolitan areas of North and South America. This process shows that many people, particularly among the middle and upper-middle classes, are seeking to create a sense of togetherness, as frequent reference to clubs (e.g. country clubs, clubes de campo, etc.) makes clear. However, this demand for togetherness tends to be met by increasingly segmented real-estate products, creating differentiated social constructions. The authors look at some generic figures in the light of this segmentation.
keywords: AMERICA, CLUB, GATED COMMUNITY, TOGETHERNESS
Transformation and fragmentation of urban spaces. The Metropolitan Area of the Mexico Basin (11 fig.)
The aim of this article is to analyse the phenomena referred to as the «fragmentation» of urban space in the Mexico Basin, by studying new architectural forms and practices that have appeared in the peripheries south and west of this metropolitan area in recent decades. An analysis of the pattern of urbanisation in the valley and the spatial distribution of different social groups provides a better understanding of the numerous enclosures springing up in the affluent, residential parts of the metropolitan area. These need to be interpreted in the context of a redefinition of the dividing lines of social segregation on a local, regional and global scale.
keywords: GLOBALISATION, MEXICO CITY, RESIDENTIAL BEHAVIOURS, SEGREGATION, URBAN SPACE
Opening and closing the Japanese house in traditional folk tales
The traditional rural house is not just a technical form or a layout of more or less functional spaces. It is also and perhaps above all a story that we carry with us, that we learned long ago from the myths of our culture, embedding its fundamental features deep in our conscience. The house, whether a humble cottage or a castle, features prominently in European folk tales. But has there ever been a systematic study of it, along the lines of Bachelards poetic psychoanalysis? The same question can be asked of the house in Japanese folk tales. We embark on such a study here. Under the vast thatched roof, in summer, everything or almost everything is opened up, to let a gentle breeze through, which is the only way to stay cool in the suffocating heat of the monsoon. The reader is struck by the discreet recurrence of impossible closure, attested by the multiple episodes of intrusion central to many tales.
keywords: CLOSURE, FOLK TALE, JAPAN, TOPOLOGY, TRADITIONAL HOUSE
Anne HERTZOG. When geographers visit museums, they see things to research
After briefly describing the place of museums in geographical research, this paper describes researchers growing interest in the spatial issues at work in museums. It then examines one of the central aspects of this research: exhibitions in museums, combined with the production of territories as signifiant representations.
keywords: EXHIBITION, MUSEUM, REPRESENTATION, TERRITORY
Tables and indexes for 2004 (82 Ko)
In this issue of l’Espace géographique, you will find critical reviews of the following books
BOLLMANN Jürgen, KOCH Wolf Günther (ed.) (2001). Lexikon der Kartographie und Geomatik. Heidel-berg/Berlin: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2 vol., 453 et 455 p, (par Hervé Théry, CNRS, UMR ENS/IRD «Territoire et mondialisation dans les pays du Sud»)
BROWN Michael P. (2000). Closet Space. Geographies of metaphor from the body to the globe. London: Routledge, 170 p., £65 hardback, ISBN 0 415 18764 8, (par Hugh Clout, University College London)
DUBOIS-MAURY Jocelyne, CHALINE Claude (2002). Les Risques urbains. Paris. Armand Colin, coll. «U», 208 p., index, bibl, (par Sandrine Glatron, Université de Strasbourg)
LE FUR Anne (2000). Pratiques de la cartographie. Paris: Armand Colin, coll. «Synthèse, série géographie», 96 p, (par Hervé Théry, CNRS, UMR ENS/IRD «Territoire et mondialisation dans les pays du Sud»)
LIVINGSTONE David N. (2003). Putting Science in its Place: geographies of scientific knowledge. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press: 234 p., figs. ISBN 0 226 48722 9, (par Hugh Clout, University College London)
MABY Jacques (dir.) (2003). Objets et indicateurs géographiques. Avignon: Université dAvignon, UMR ESPACE 6012 CNRS, coll. « Actes Avignon », n° 5, 316 p., (par Isabelle Thomas, Université de Louvain-la-Neuve)
NOVEMBER Valérie (2002). Les Territoires du risque. Bern: Peter Lang, 332 p., bibl, (par Sandrine Glatron, Université de Strasbourg)
POLESE Mario, SHEARMUR Richard (dir.), DESJARDINS Pierre-Marcel, JOHNSON Marc (coll.) (2002). La Périphérie face à léconomie du savoir. Montréal: Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, (par Antoine S. Bailly, Université de Genève)
SHEPPARD Eric, MCMASTER Robert B. eds. (2004). Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society and Method. Oxford: Blackwell, 272 p., ISBN 0 631 23070 X (paperback), (par Hugh Clout, University College London)
VIGREUX Jean, WOLIKOW Serge (dir.), BOURGEON Jean-Marc, JACQUET Olivier (coord.) (2001). Vignes, vins et pouvoirs. Dijon: Éditions universitaires de Dijon, Cahiers de lIHC, Territoires contemporains n° 6, (par Benoît Roger, doctorant, Université Paris VIII)
RENARD Jean (2002). Les Mutations des campagnes. Paysages et structures agraires dans le monde. Paris: A. Colin, coll. «U», 221 p, (par Yves Poinsot, Université de Pau)
ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, COMITÉ NATIONAL DE GÉOGRAPHIE (2003). Innovations in rural areas. Clermont-Ferrand: CERAMAC, 360 p., £14/20€, (par Hugh Clout, University College London)
SYLVESTRE J.-P. dir. (2002). Agriculteurs, ruraux et citadins: les mutations des campagnes françaises. Dijon: CRDP de Bourgogne, coll. «Éducagri», (par Jacqueline Coutras, LADYSS, CNRS)
VEYRET-MEKDJIAN Yvette (2001,). Géographie des risques naturels. Paris: La Documentation française, La Documentation photographique, n° 8023, 63 p., phot., cartes, (par Sandrine Glatron, Université de Strasbourg)
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Last modified: December 10, 2004